03-2015

Number 3 / 2015

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№03|2015

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 614.777:504.062

Terent'ev V. I., Lopatin S. A.

Some aspects of the regulatory support of arranging sanitary protection zones of drinking water sources

Summary

A brief analysis of the statutory and regulatory enactments setting the basic requirements to the arrangement of sanitary protection zones of water sources is presented. Despite the fact that the regulation of water relations is an element of the national policy some regulatory voids exist that account for the low legal status of water bodies used for public water supply. Because of the lack of an integrated regulatory framework of water resources management in the national business policy an efficient system of surface and underground water protection from different kinds of pollution has not been developed. Water factor in many cases produces not positive but negative impact on the human organism. A law making initiative has been formulated on the basis of the legal possibility of improving the status of sanitary protection zones of water sources by extending the list of nature conservation areas and including sanitary protection zones. Extending the list of projects that require continuous monitoring of their sanitary and environmental condition is suggested by inclu­ding aquifer basins and catchments areas of surface water bodies. Within these areas business and other types of activities shall be limited to the level specified for the sanitary protection zones of water sources. By the example of the Leningrad Region an information chain has been formulated that shall be functioning in favor of the water resources protection that are used for public water supply. Targeting at the development of the draft of the directly effective Federal Law «On the protection of water sources» will provide for enlarging the power of the government authorities of the constituent entities, local authorities; improving essentially the social significance of water sources; redirecting the purpose of the regulatory legal act to ensuring more favorable impact of the water factor on the human health.

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№03|2015

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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УДК

Belyaeva S. D.

Proposals on the adjustment of the Environmental Law issues in relation to classifying wastewater sludge as production and consumer wastes


 

№03|2015

RUSSIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

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UDC

DANILOVICH D. A., Chechevatova O. Iu.

Procedure of compiling Reference Book 2015 on the best available technologies in wastewater treatment


 

№03|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.24

Omel'ianiuk M. V.

The technologies of water well repair and rehabilitation

Summary

The share of underground water used for domestic and industrial water supply is more than 60–70% of the total water supply in most constituent entities. For drinking water supply wells up to 200–500 m deep are used; for the sources of mineral and medicinal-table water wells up to 1000–1500 m deep are used. To supply the systems of oil-field reservoir pressure maintenance with water the wells of several kilometers depth are required. The share of inactive wells often exceeds 50%. With the use of advanced repair technologies they can become water sources eliminating new well drilling. The technology of physical and chemical decolmatation of filters and near-filter zones of artesian wells used for drinking and domestic water supply has been developed together with the technical means of its implementation. The developed process solutions and technical means tested on industrial scale provide for increasing the well debit (even restoring the initial debit set after drilling); in addition the financial and labor costs as well as the time consumption for repair works are much lower than for boring a new well. The technology of wave hydrodynamic drag is efficiently combined with the chemical stimulation methods (acidizing) and ensures the synergistic effect. The technology and equipment do not cause any destruction of the well filters, cement sheath or casing column integrity. The findings have been tested in the process of repairing dozens of water wells used for drinking purposes; the actual debit increase was 30–1150%.

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№03|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.067.1

Filatov A. I.

On several causes of unstable operation of rapid filters


 

№03|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., Baranov V. L., Tkachev A. A.

Ultraviolet radiation – an advanced method  of wastewater disinfection

Summary

The current regulatory requirements to effluent disinfection with chlorine agents demand an obligatory dechlorination stage. In the present context physical methods of wastewater disinfection can be an alternative solution. The method of wastewater ultraviolet radiation with the wave length of 253.7 m and low pressure amalgam lamps is most efficient and widely used. The given method is characterized by the high disinfection efficiency in relation to all types of microorganisms including viruses; by the absence of negative environmental impact; by the absence of disinfection by-products in wastewater, and equipment compactness. Engineering and economical comparison of the two methods of disinfection is presented: with the use of chlorine agent and ultraviolet radiation. It is shown that the method of ultraviolet radiation disinfection is more cost effective. The absolute value of the annual economic effect of using the equipment for UV disinfection of wastewater is increasing with the increase of the capacity of the facilities as a result of significant operational costs saving even at minor increase of the amount of the wastewater treated.

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№03|2015

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.44

Guliaeva I. S., D'iakov M. S., Glushankova I. S.

Thermal treatment of municipal wastewater sludge containing heavy metals

Summary

In the process of municipal wastewater sludge incineration ash is generated that contains concentrations of heavy metals which limits its further practical use and requires land filling on industrial waste dumps. The carried out research was aiming at the development of detoxification of wastewater sludge in the process of thermal destruction with the production of a product of useful quality. In the course of studies the samples of dewatered wastewater sludge from the Perm municipal treatment facilities were used. The wastewater treatment facilities receive domestic wastewater and industrial effluents from machinery works that provide for the increased concentration of heavy metals both in wastewater and in sludge. During thermochemical processing of the Perm municipal wastewater sludge wastes from potash fertilizer production (flotation potash chloride, sodium chloride) can be used as an agent that provides for utilizing heavytonnage wastes and reducing the costs of wastewater sludge utilization. It was stated that wastewater sludge pretreatment with concentrated potassium chloride or calcium chloride solutions with the subsequent incineration at 900–1000 °C provided for heavy metals transfer to gaseous phase in the form of metal chloride aerosols that were further absorbed by alkaline agent solution. The generated mineral residue contains 5–7% phosphorus (as Р2О5) in the form of calcium phosphate or potassium phosphate and trace elements that allow using it as a compound fertilizer.

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№03|2015

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

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UDC 628.166.094.3

Zenitov N. A.

DKT-425 vehicle for pipeline disinfection

Summary

Maintaining water facilities in proper condition requires mandatory sanitary measures, i. e. disinfection. Lately many water companies in Russian cities have been increasingly using sodium hypochlorite as a disinfecting agent. Using it makes the technology of water disinfection easier and provides for maintaining the residual active chlorine in water. Disinfection is carried out by filling a water network section with water with addition of sodium hypochlorite in dosages rated for a time period required for killing hazardous microorganisms – bacteria, viruses etc. To provide for precise sodium hypochlorite dosing and supplying to the water network section under disinfection, for distributing the disinfecting agent uniformly  along the entire length of the section, and for convenient transporting and dispensing sodium hypochlorite in accordance with the safety rules DKT-425 vehicle based on Hyundai HD-65 automobile was suggested. It includes: a dosing unit with a membrane pump; a plastic tank for sodium hypochlorite; a tank for equipment washing with a self-priming pump, a hose and a nozzle; a filling hose and a feeding hose on hand-driven drums; a generating set; an air heating unit; and a plenum system. The technology of pipeline disinfection with the use of the dosing equipment of the vehicle is presented. The calculating formulae for determining the required amount of sodium hypochlorite, the time required for uniform filling the disinfected section with account of the carriage water flow are given. The examples of calculating the disinfection process parameters are set.

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№03|2015

PRACTICAL NOTES

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UDC 628.24

PANKOVA G. A., Klementyev M. N.

The experience of operating sewer tunnels in St. Petersburg

Summary

A short description of the sewer tunnels in St. Petersburg, their building conditions, operation and maintenance, safety arrangements during inspection is presented. A portable, mobile diagnostic unit for the inspection of the underwater space of the tunnel has been designed. The measuring part of the unit comprises ult­rasonic sensors for underwater space scanning, TV camera with zooming and rotation in different direction, and recorders of the wastewater chemical composition. Scanning the underwater part of the tunnel provides for the information on defects and dama­ges of the tunnel trough and lining, level of silting. Basing on the inspection results the causes of the tunnel and in-line structures failures are determined. In parallel with the tunnel inspections the experts of the St. Petersburg University of Architecture and Civil Engineering carried out an analysis of the hydraulic control of the inspected sections of the tunnels. The results of the inspection and hydraulic control analysis provided the basis for the development of priorities, tunnel repair and rehabilitation activities; allowed improving the integrity of the municipal wastewater disposal system. A short description of the solution of the problem of cleaning the polluted emissions from the sewer and tunnels alongside with the references of the gas cleaning system are presented.

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