04-2015

Number 4 / 2015

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№04|2015

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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УДК [628.1.033+628.3]:658.562

Gnipov A. V., Mazaev V. T., Khromchenko Ya. L.

On the control of drinking water quality and wastewater composition reflected in the RF new regulations

Summary

Some critical comments to 416-FZ Federal Law «On water supply and wastewater disposal» of December 7, 2011 are presented. It is noted that the statutory wording can be often liable to differing interpretations of the most important provisions whereas the regulations adopted in furtherance of the law are not associated with the holistic view of the problem. The control and supervision aspect of water supply and wastewater disposal is considered that has been regulated by the new RF enactments. «The rules of operational control of the drinking water, hot water quality and safety» approved by RF Government Decree No. 10 of January 6, 2015 are discussed. Some concerns are voiced that a common limited list of indicators for all the public water supply systems will be established which can result in formalistic development and approval of the programs of water quality and safety operational control; in the lack of proper quality surveillance. It will cause serious degradation of the situation with drinking water in Russia. In relation to the problem of the composition and properties of wastewater discharged into public sewers it is shown that all the customer categories irrespective of the discharged wastewater amount shall carry our routine operational control of the composition and properties of wastewater (independently and at their own expense), and submit the results to the water services company. The company, in its turn, will check the conformity of the submitted information with the actual data («The rules of using public water and wastewater systems in the Russian Federation», paragraph 65). 416-FZ Federal Law and the documents adopted on its basis compared to the previous acting statutory enactments will be a step backwards in relation to the procedure of operational control of drinking water quality, wastewater composition and properties as well as the safety of the mentioned water environment.

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№04|2015

ПИТЬЕВОЕ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЕ

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UDC 628.112

Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M., Kasatochkin A. S.

Cleaning up underground water from chlororganic compounds

Summary

Chlororganic compounds present in underground water are technogenic pollution products. The water in a number of deep wells that supply Podolsk and Troitsk cities in the Moscow Area with water is characterized by elevated concentrations of volatile chlororganic compounds (carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and tetrachlorethylene). To provide for water purification according to the drinking water standards a number of technologies is suggested: surface aeration, ozonation, activated carbon treatment, sorption on activated carbon, membrane filtration. The technology of removing volatile chlororganic compounds from water was tested in an experimental plant including primary aeration of raw water in a vacuum-ejection unit with subsequent filtration in filters with granulated activated carbon, and salt composition correction with nanofiltration. The operation of a unit with primary ozonation of water before supply to the carbon filter was tested. It was shown that aeration provided for 50–80% removal of volatile chlororganic compounds which could significantly improve the operating life of a carbon filter. After treatment with activated carbon the concentration of all chlororganic compounds was lower compared to the regulations. Since water ozonation involves high ozone consumption ozone dosage higher than 100 mg/l is required to ensure the reduction of trichloroethylene and tetrachlorethylene concentrations to the standard value. Tetrachlorethylene is oxidized heavier than other compounds (the regulatory concentration is not reached). Nanofiltration with «Nano NF 4040» membrane manufactured by «RM Nanotech» domestic producer provides for water purification according to Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.1.4.1074-01 without using any other technologies. However, nanofiltration involves primary water treatment – de-ironing and mechanical filtration.

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№04|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.081:546.72/.711

Ryazantsev A. A., Glazkov D. V., Prosianikov E. D.

Removal of iron and manganese from natural water

Summary

The task of the study was investigating the impact of cavitation originating in low pressure devices of jet type on the kinetics of Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions oxidation as well as developing the method of chemical free removal of manganese and iron from natural water. The results of studies and the mechanisms of iron Fe2+ and manganese Mn2+ catalytic oxidation in water induced by cavitation are presented. The jet type device is equipped with a cartridge made in the form of a cone charged with crushed natural manganese mineral psilomelane or small steel chips. The particles of MnO2 and (or) FeOOH catalyst getting into water as a result of corrosion of the charge under the impact of cavitation become centers on which a Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption and oxidation take place. It was stated that under these conditions Fe2+ oxidation was not a limiting stage whereas complete oxidation of Mn2+ ions with the initial concentration of 2 mg/l occurs within 5 minutes. The fast manganese oxidation in the reactor charged with steel chips is caused by high Fe0 corrosion rate induced by cavitation and catalytic effect of structureless iron hydroxides that are formed during the charge corrosion. The obtained experimental data allowed designing a process flow scheme of manganese and iron removal from water that included a cavitation module and ceramic membrane filters operating in cross-filtration mode. The dimensions and size of a water treatment unit with a capacity of 60 m3/day have been calculated.

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№04|2015

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.1.033

NEFEDOVA E. D., Mel'tser A. V., Kiselev A. V., Gvozdev V. A., Kuz'mina T. N., Erastova N. V., Denisova A. L.

The method of integral estimation of drinking water safety (experience of use in SUE «St. Petersburg Vodokanal»)

Summary

Supplying safety drinking water to the population is a main task of the state policy focused on the public health protection. The quality of water consumed day-to-day has a significant effect on the human health. The existing methods of estimating the quality of drin­king water reduce mainly to the comparison of actual chemical concentrations with the hygienic regulations. This approach does not provide for determining possible risk for human health. The developed method of integral estimation of drinking water safety based on the calculation of an integrated estimated figure takes into account the differently directed impact of the substances producing toxic, carcinogenic and olfactory-reflex effects. The given calculation is based on the method of health risk assessment. The sequence of determining the integral indicator of drinking water safety involves the integration of values that specify carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks as well as the risk of olfactory-reflex (organoleptic) effects. To solve this problem some models of risk assessment as applied to the indicators of organoleptic effect were developed. The estimation of the total risk of organoleptic effects is made by selecting its maximum value from the entire set of values. To estimate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks nonthreshold models based on probability calculations of harmful effect progression are used. The method will provide for studying more thoroughly possible negative effect related to drinking water consumption; improving the mechanisms of drinking water quality estimation; upgrading industrial control programs and social-hygienic monitoring; establishing the priority of activities aimed at water treatment improvement which in the long run will contribute to minimizing possible risk for public health.

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№04|2015

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 625.768.55:628.312.004.1

Pupyrev E. I., Primin O. G., Variushina G. P.

Comprehensive solution of snow management in Moscow

Summary

The main principle of the strategy of integrated improvement of city functioning in the Northern Region and its infrastructure in winter is a comprehensive solution of the problem of removing snow mass from different parts of the municipal traffic network, transportation and utilization. To solve this problem the experts of «MosvodokanalNIIproject» OJSC developed Master Plan of snow management in Moscow which was approved by the Moscow government in 2002. The regularities of snow cover pollution and formation of the fallen snow accumulations were taken as a basis of the plan. The urban meteorology changes in recent years, increase of the snow depth and the road surface subject to cleaning, the need of recording the amount of snow removed from the roofs, the use of advanced technologies of cleaning streets, yards and sidewalks, reduction of snow disposal time schedules have changed the initial data for calculating the snow amount subject to removal and utilization and called for analyzing and evaluating the system of snow management and, accor­dingly, for implementing the Master Plan of snow disposal in Moscow. The main principles of implementing the Master Plan targeted at the comprehensive solution of snow management in a megacity are presented. The calculations of the technical-economic indicators of different snow management technologies showed that processing the snow removed from the roads in mobile snow melting plants proved to be the most efficient method. Furthermore, the pollution of the water bodies within the city boundaries is reduced. The experience of operating mobile snow melting plants in Moscow revealed a number of their evident advantages: possible seasonal installation without any land allotment, complicated approvals and permanent connections to the utilities; saving expensive urban lands for use; the maximum possible reduction (or even elimination) of snow evacuation.

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№04|2015

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 627.8.034.96.001.575

Voronov I. V., Shirkova T. N.

Designing drainage systems of flooded areas on the basis of computer simulation

Summary

To make hydrogeological calculations of drainage systems for protecting territories from floods the methods of analogy, analytical and computer simulation are used. The method of computer simulation as applied to designing drainage systems on the territory of the Imeretinskaia Lowland of the Krasnodar Area is closely considered. The analysis of the model map of ground water depth after territory upfilling and building development provided for identifying the areas to construct the systems of engineering protection from floo­ding. The basic design solution of reducing ground water level on the flooded territories is constructing horizontal subsoil pipe drainage with filtering bedding or radial horizontal drainage. Depending on the results of the mathematical simulation of the hydrogeological conditions on the protected area and hydrogeological calculations pipe drainages of perimeter, linear or systematic (areal) type are constructed. Ground water by gravity is diverted into open-channel flows provided the proper ecological justification is available. As may be required automated drainage pumping over stations are established. The developed concept allows reducing and maintaining ground water level at the permissible depth.

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№04|2015

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.17.001.4

Zhmakov G. N., Dil'man R. V., Pankov S. I.

Protection of the Imeretinskaia Lowland from surface runoff flooding

Summary

Short information on the engineering-construction solutions of removing surface runoff from a development area on the Imeretinskaia Lowland territory of the Krasnodar Area is presented. Its surface is slightly elevated above the sea level (from 0.7 to 4 m); therefore, pressure removal of 100% storm runoff which at times becomes a disaster (during heavy rains) and causes significant damage to the territory is required. Removing surface runoff from residential areas of the Olympic park also requires advanced treatment. Taking into account the construction conditions the entire territory has been divided into five drainage areas to reduce the depth of the collection network and engineering structures. In each area a complex including a pumping station, an accumulating tank and advanced treatment facilities has been designed and built. The surface area of the drainage sites significantly differs from each other (30–440 ha). Following the extended survey and substantiation of the pumping equipment choice angular flow pumps with capacities 5 and 12.1 m3/h and 12.5 m head were selected. Taking into account the partial removal of pollutants in the accumulating tank two-stage filtration was used for advanced surface runoff treatment. Wastewater is treated with «Aqua-Aurat™18») coagulant and processed in the filters of the first stage with quartz sand media. To provide for the complete removal of residual dissolved oil products wastewater is supplied to the rapid gravity sorption filters of the second stage with MIU-S2 activated carbon media. The accumulating tank is cleaned from sludge regularly 2–3 times a year using a bucket loader. Sludge generated in the process of chemical wastewater treatment is dewatered in a belt filterpress. Dewatered sludge is disposed to the solid waste landfill.

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№04|2015

METROLOGY

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UDC 628.311:532.572

Yegorov N. L., Loitsker O. D.

On the flow characteristic of a measuring weir of unconventional profile

Summary

The aspects of measuring gravity flows in water supply and sewer systems with the use of different profile measuring weirs – weir notch, wide chute, and practical profile are considered. The aspect of flowing around the weir crest of different design is covered. It is shown that designing rectangular weirs without contraction in cases when atmospheric air admission under the stream of the watertail is not provided the measurement error can increase by 20–25%. The best solution is designing if possible the measuring weir with small, around 2–3%, side contraction. By the actual example of the rectangular weir designed for one of the Moscow treatment plants it is shown that deviation from the stringent metrological requirements to the overflow wall profile makes the identification of the weir impossible and can cause up to 20% additional measurement error. It is recommended to observe rigidly the provisions of MI 2406-97 regulatory document even in case when no commercial water account is required and the readings of the meter are used for process monitoring and operative control.

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№04|2015

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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Kotrelev V. M.

KSB group in new economic environment


 

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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