07-2015

Number 7 / 2015

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№07|2015

WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SCHEMES

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UDC 628.144/.218.001

Puzakov V. S.

Analysis of water supply and wastewater disposal schemes development and approval in the Russian Federation

Summary

The analysis of the current state of the development and approval of the water supply and wastewater disposal schemes in the federal districts and across Russia (except for the Crimea Federal District) is reported. The tendencies towards improving the quality of deve­lopment and approval of the water supply and wastewater disposal schemes at the regional level are presented. In compliance with the requirements of Order of the RF Ministry of Civil Engineering of March 21, 2014 No. 110 «On approving the procedure of monitoring the development and approval of water supply and wastewater disposal schemes» monitoring the development and approval of the given schemes shall be executed by the executive authorities of the constituents of the Russian Federation in water and wastewater management. Thus, a specific «filter» for evaluating the quality of the developed water supply and wastewater disposal schemes was established at the regional level. The outlined approaches of the Moscow Area Government to the development of such monitoring system can be useful for other regions of the country.

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№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.052.2

Potapov V. V., Brovkin A. E.

Improving natural water purification with the use of new generation chemicals

Summary

The main aspects of natural water purification with coagulation are considered. The data on the composition of the surface public water supply sources in the area of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky are presented. The average molecular weight of humus substances present in natural waters is determined. The results of experimental studies of using new generation coagulants and flocculants in natural water purification at the water treatment facilities of MUE «Petropavlovsk Vodokanal» are presented. The action of coagulants: aluminium sulfate, aluminium hydroxychloride and aluminium oxychloride was studied. It was stated that the maximum efficiency of color removal from natural water in the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky environment is provided by the use of aluminium sulfate and aluminium hydroxychloride; whereas the use of aluminium oxychloride was less efficient. The efficiency of turbidity removal when using all the three coagulants was high – 70–100%. Praestol 650 TR and Praestol 2515 TR flocculants at mutual dose testing improve the efficiency of color removal: Praestol 2515 TR – from 49–66 to 63–100%. The use of flocculants provided for improving the floc formation rate, floc size, floc sedimentation rate and sludge volume. To introduce the new advanced coagulant at the water treatment plant the coagulation process testing with the use of aluminium sulfate in combination with the flocculant is required. To eliminate possible formation of problem chlororganics before the coagulant takes effect and humus settles special attention shall be paid to the sodium hypochlorite injection point when coagulating high-colored water.

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№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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УДК 628.166

Platonov M. M., Kochelaeva G. A.

Optimization of drinking water chlorammoniation process

Summary

Water disinfection is the most important function of the public water supply. Chlorammoniation used for this purpose has a number of advantages compared to the traditional chlorination. However, it sets raised requirements to the analytical control instruments which limit the automation potential. Different control parameters are considered in relation to their possible application for the automation of the disinfection process. It is shown that the best parameter indicative of the optimal conditions of the process is the concentration of free ammonium. To choose a method of measuring free ammonium under the conditions of chlorammoniation at the existing water supply facilities tests on monitoring free ammonium by different methods were carried out. The limitations of some laboratory techniques are shown together with the advantages of the method using a gas-selective electrode, particularly in automatic analysis. The method of free ammonium monitoring with the use of an automatic analyzer with a gas-selective electrode has a number of advantages: a clear criterion of the optimal process conditions; the lowest absolute error of the measurements; possible use of the method for the automation of chlorine (ammonium) dosing. The operational tests showed the efficiency of the given method of the process control, reliable operation of the analyzer and good repeatability in relation to the laboratory data.

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№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., Koudryavtsev N. N., Svitnev S. A., Timakov S. V., Ustiuzhaninov A. M., Shcheglov A. Iu.

Biotesting – the modern criterion of evaluating the efficiency of UV-systems for water disinfection

Summary

Nowadays ultraviolet irradiation increasingly becomes an actual method of water disinfection. Herewith units with amalgam and mercury low pressure lamps are mostly used. In the radiation spectrum of these lamps the mercury resonance line is dominating with 253.7 nm wave length on which up to 40% of the lamp power can fall. Radiation with this wave length has a powerful disinfection effect. The impact of UV-irradiation results in irreversible DNA and RNA damage in microorganisms so that the latter lose their reproductive capacity (become inactivated). The main parameter that characterizes the efficiency of these installations is UV-irradiation dose. It is a calculated value, therefore to obtain the maximum information on the operation of a UV-disinfection unit it is advisable to carry out biotesting with the help of live microorganisms. Besides, in some countries (Germany, France, Austria, USA) biotesting of UV-systems is obligatory. In Russia bio-validation is not obligatory; therefore real biological tests are often substituted with computer simulation. Process simulation carried out for a seven-lamp unit manufactured by «LIT» Scientific-Production Association produces the results close to the results obtained during biotesting. This confirms the range of use of disinfection UV-unit claimed by the manufacturer. However, the absolute guarantee of the UV-unit efficiency is bio-validation only since it supposes the use of live water and microorganisms. The data obtained in the process of biotesting allow describing the specific features of the disinfection unit operation to the fullest extent possible. The certificate verifying biotesting is a credible guarantee that the unit will provide for the required level of water disinfection.

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№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Roumyantsev V. A., Kriukov L. N., NEFEDOVA E. D., Rybakin V. N.

Evaluation of ultrasonic cavitation effect on toxicogenic algae

Summary

In the «Russian Federation National System of Chemical and Biological Safety (2009–2014)» Federal Task Program it is noticed that in Russia lots and lots of pollutants are discharged annually into surface waters. As a result deleterious hydrobionts, blue-green algae Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) in particular, started dominating in fresh water bodies. In the process of lysis of these prokaryotes cancerogenic microcystines and neurotropic saxitoxins are formed; whereas in the process of chlorination in water treatment significant amounts of toxic halomethanes are formed. Research workers of Limnology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) are studying in detail the potential of using ultrasonic cavitation and ultrasonic irradiation in combination with coagulation/flocculation in water treatment. In the experimental studies water samples with algae: unicellular and multicellular green algae, Xantophyta, diatomite algae and blue-green algae were used. The algae were either cultivated in the laboratory or the relative samples were taken from the ponds and lakes of St. Petersburg. The toxicity of the water samples before and after ultrasonic treatment of algae was determined by the method of biotesting and biorecognition with the use of cladocerans Daphnia magna. The concentration of chlorophyll was determined according to 17.1.4.02-90 State Standard (GOST). It was found that under the effect of ultrasonic cavitation the destruction of blue-green algae and water detoxification occurred. The obtained results of evaluating the effect of ultrasonic cavitation on toxinogenic algae instill confidence in the viability of the given processing technology. Needless to say that the development of the relative ultrasonic devices of acceptable power consumption provides for extending the scope of using the method for weedy water treatment.

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№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.321

Gaid Kader, Sauvignet Philippe, Buisson Hervé

The combination Actiflo – MF/UF membrane:  an efficient solution for surface waters

Summary

Process schemes of surface water treatment with membrane filtration in most cases at the final stage require advanced clarification technologies that provide for efficient removing color and high concentrations of organic and suspended solids from raw water. Therefore, «Actiflo® – ultra- and microfiltration» process scheme is the optimal solution for drinking water purification. The results of pilot tests of «Actiflo® – ultra- and microfiltration» process scheme are presented. The experience of operating the plants using this scheme is generalized.

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№07|2015

ВОДОКАНАЛЫ РОССИИ

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УДК

Окончание строительства новой очереди  Головных очистных сооружений  водопровода г. Хабаровска

Аннотация

Ввод в эксплуатацию новой очереди Головных очистных сооружений водопровода (ГОСВ) г. Хабаровска позволит повысить качество питьевой воды и провести капитальный ремонт очистных сооружений, работающих с середины 1970-х годов. Об этом было заявлено в ходе торжественных мероприятий в честь окончания строительства новой очереди ГОСВ с участием мэра г. Хабаровска Александра Соколова.


 

№07|2015

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.194

Afanas'ev A. A., Beliaeva D. M., Shaporenko V. N., Rodionov A. E.

Advanced equipment for safe air exchange  in clean water tanks

Summary

The substantiation of the lack of engineering support of drinking water quality in relation to the hygienic regulations before supply to the customers is given. The comparative analysis of the engineering solutions of clean water tank maintenance is presented. Basing on the experience of designing water and wastewater networks the design of air exchange unit has been developed that outperforms the existing engineering solutions. The main advantage of the air exchange unit compared to the typical absorbing filter is the compactness that allows eliminating the costs of attaching generic design documentation, reducing the total cost of equipment and building and assembly works. The developed air exchange unit for clean water tanks is successfully replacing outdated standard absorbing filters. The fabrication materials ensure environmental resistance and allow operating the unit virtually in any climatic region at the temperature of –60 to +40 °С.

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№07|2015

WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT

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UDC 628.336.71

PANKOVA G. A., Petrov S. V.

The experience of operating wastewater sludge incineration plants  at SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg»

Summary

The experience of operating wastewater sludge incineration plants at the facilities of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» is reported. The technology of fluidized-bed sludge incineration is described. The process takes place by means of the calorific capacity of dewatered wastewater sludge. The heat generated in the process of incineration is a secondary energy resource and is utilized in the process for heating blast air, working area and generation of electrical power at the wastewater treatment facilities. The processes of cleaning flue gases generated in the incineration process are compared. The methods of wet and dry flue gas scrubbing are used at the sludge inci­neration facilities. The quality of scrubbed gases meets the regulatory requirements. The measures taken for improving the reliability and efficiency of operating the plant at the Central wastewater treatment plant of St. Petersburg are described. The experience gained was taken into account in designing sludge incineration facilities at the South-West and North wastewater treatment plants. All the plants adopted the technology of fluidized-bed incineration of sludge. The plants provide for incinerating the entire amount of sludge generated at the wastewater treatment facilities of St. Petersburg.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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