07 2019

Number 7 / 2019

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№7|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033:66.094.413

Zholdakova Z. I, Lebed’-Sharlevich Ia. I., Mamonov R. A., Sinitsyna O. O.

Enhancement of the requirements to monitoring the safety of drinking water during chlorination

Summary

Oxidative methods involving the use of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite are most widely used for water disinfection. At the same time the regulatory requirements included into the sanitary and epidemiological legislation do not fully reflect the requirements to monitoring their use. A comparative analysis of scientific, technical and methodological literature, as well as of the statutory documents regulating the parameters of the effectiveness and safety of drinking water disinfection with chlorine showed that in the process of developing the first SanPiN 2.1.4.559-96 an exact definition was neglected. It consisted in the fact that the quantitative indicators of these parameters shall not stipulate mandatory simultaneous presence of free and combined residual chlorine in water. The data on the in-process control of drinking water at the water treatment plant in the city of Perm showed no need to maintain the concentration of residual free chlorine at 0.3–0.5 mg/l granting residual combined chlorine in the range of 0.8–1.2 mg/l is available. In this regard it is advisable to introduce appropriate updated requirements for monitoring the concentrations of free and combined chlorine in drinking water in SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01. When water is chlorinated with gaseous chlorine and sodium hypochlorite a large amount of hazardous halogen-containing volatile and semivolatile compounds including carcinogenic are formed. However, water quality control is carried out only for certain volatile substances. A differentiated approach to the selection of indicators for monitoring the concentration of halogen-containing compounds taking into account the characteristics of raw and disinfected drinking water is recommended.

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№7|2019

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Gandurina L. V., Kvitka L. A., Shakhgaldian M. K.

Reducing color of natural water with the use of organic coagulants

Summary

The results of studies of the effectiveness of reducing color of low-turbid natural water by filtration with the use of organic coagulants of domestic trademarks: VPK-402, Kaustamin-15 and Biopag are presented. It is shown that the decrease in color of natural waters with organic coagulants occurs mainly due to coagulation processes at low alkalinity close to zero, and chemical interactions of the polyanion of humic acids with the coagulant polycation with alkalinity more than 1.2 mmol-eq/l. It was determined that the optimal doses of organic coagulants increase with a decrease in molecular weight in the series VPK-402 < Kaustamine-15 < Biopag and an increase in alkalinity of the treated water; whereas with an increase in hardness – decrease. In the alkalinity range of 1.2–2 mmol-eq/l the specific consumption of coagulants VPK-402 and Kaustamin-15 increases from 0.04–0.06 to 0.12 mg per degree of initial color while low-molecular Biopag coagulant practically does not change and is 0.09 mg/degree. The dispersion of the formed particles of the suspension increases with a decrease in the hardness of the treated water, an increase in alkalinity and the concentration of low molecular weight fractions of humic acids in water being purified which is accompanied by an increase in color of the purified filtered water. It is shown that the standard decrease in water color below 20 degrees is achieved by removing coagulated particles with a size of more than 0.3 microns in the process of filtration.

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№7|2019

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 614.7:613.15

Budarina O. V., Pinigin M. A., Iakovlev N. V.

Living standards in the area close to wastewater treatment facilities – sources of odor nuisance

Summary

A review of literature data on the assessment of the impact of atmospheric air pollution on the living standards in the areas close to the enterprises – the sources of odor including wastewater treatment facilities is presented. Numerous studies have shown that perceptible odor in the atmospheric air and irritation caused by it results not only in the deterioration in the quality of life of people, but also in some disorders – somatic (headache, short wind, irritation of the respiratory tract, general malaise, etc.) and emotional (overstrain , fatigability, depression, etc.). At the same time, often the maximum permissible concentrations of certain pollutants are not exceeded which keeps the regulatory authorities from taking appropriate measures in relation to the enterprise. Therefore, in case of numerous complaints from the residents about odors and, as a result, deterioration of health and living standards it is necessary to significantly expand the approaches associated with assessing the impact of emissions from enterprises – sources of odor, primarily wastewater treatment facilities due to their commonness. To this end it is proposed to introduce into the regulation and monitoring practice the criteria compliance with which can ensure the absence of odor nuisance in the atmospheric air. In assessing the potential effects of odors on public health the comprehensive analysis of air pollution using various methods (instrumental and olfactory-odorimetric) and with a simultaneous survey of the population living under the conditions of different exposure levels to odor nuisance is of great importance. Conducting comprehensive and multi-attribute research will significantly improve the level of scientific knowledge in this field and open the door for controlling odor in the atmospheric air, in particular, when planning measures to reduce emissions of odorous substances.

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№7|2019

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 546.62:54-36+661.862.23

Mayorov D. V., Korovin V. N., Mikhailova O. B.

Preparation of aluminium hydroxychlorosulfates based on its sulfate salts

Summary

The results of studies on the synthesis of aluminum hydroxochlorosulfates based on active aluminum hydroxosulfate obtained by the method of low-temperature solid-phase synthesis using (NH4)2SO4∙Al2(SO4)3∙24H2O and gaseous NH3 as starting components are given. The process of interaction of aluminum hydroxosulfate with HCl solutions was studied. By the method of test coagulation it was established that the coagulation ability of aluminum hydroxochlorosulfate sample with a basicity of 2/3 is 10–15% higher compared to solutions of oxychloride and aluminum oxysulfate of the same basicity in the process of removing Cu2+ and Co2+ ions from water. At the same time its use provides for reducing the consumption of coagulant without impairing the efficiency of removing impurities from water. Besides it was shown that with the use of aluminum hydroxosulfate the sedimentation rate of flocs formed during the coagulation process is 5–10% higher compared to aluminum oxychloride and oxysulfate. This chemical can be used for the purification of both industrial and municipal wastewater.

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№7|2019

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

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UDC 628.144:006.015.7

Neparidze R. Sh., Urakin M. V., Belyaev N. N., Sokolov A. I., Kovyrshina R. N., Neliubina A. A.

Results of hydraulic calculations of the water supply and distribution system in Tobolsk, the Tyumen Region

Summary

The progress of process surveys and hydraulic calculations of the water supply and distribution system of Tobolsk by the specialists of «RVKN» LLC (Moscow), PAO «Sibirsko-Ural’skaia Energeticheskaia Kompaniia» (Tyumen) and its Tobolsk branch are covered. The work is based on the theoretical foundations and methods in the field of hydraulic calculations of water distribution networks carried out by leading Russian research workers, as well as the rich experience of numerous similar works carried out by the specialists of «RVKN» LLC in previous years. Process surveys included an on-site survey of the water distribution system rating the relevant characteristics of pumping equipment and a manometric survey. In the course of hydraulic calculations 25 different options were considered that involved seasonal changes in the modes of operation of the municipal water supply system with account of the compliance with the fire extinguishing requirements. At the same time special attention was paid to including the newly commissioned (upgraded) Sokolovsky water intake facilities. The analysis of the calculation results showed a low relevant process and structural reliability of the water supply and distribution system, especially of the currently operated Zhukovsky water intake facilities. The stage-by-stage program for the development of the municipal water supply and distribution system (WSDS) provided for the measures aimed at the optimization of the operation in the coming years, as well as the development of a reliable and prospective water supply scheme for Tobolsk.

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№7|2019

НОВЫЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ

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KSB: немецкие технологии с российским характером

Аннотация

В рамках реализации программы локализации производств международного концерна KSB SE & Co. KGaA на территории индустриаль­ного парка «Индиго» в поселении Сосенское (НАО, Москва) введен в эксплуатацию первый производственный комплекс ООО «КСБ».


 

№7|2019

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.161.2:628.169:675.024

Chursin V. I., Panfilov E. V.

Purification of local chrome-containing wastewater and recovery
of chrome compounds

Summary

Domestic and international experience in wastewater recycling and reuse at various stages of leather production shows that the effectiveness of the process solutions directly depends on the chemicals used. In the practice of Russian leather factories sodium carbonate is used to precipitate chromium compounds from solutions. The results of experimental studies of the recovery of spent chrome-containing solutions from the process of skin tanning with magnesium hydroxide suspension and sodium carbonate solution are presented. The conditions of spent chrome tanning liquor precipitation using magnesium hydroxide suspension were studied. The main parameters influencing the precipitation process are pH value and precipitation agent consumption. The high efficiency of using magnesium hydroxide suspension as a precipitation agent is explained by the higher precipitation rate and absence of chromium compounds in supernatant. The main characteristics of the generated sludge are determined. Chromic hydroxide generated as a result of using magnesium hydroxide suspension is characterized by the higher density and better filterability. The possible recovery of tannic chromium compounds from precipitated chromium hydroxide is shown when dissolved in sulfuric acid and reinforced with chrome tanning agent to the required concentration. Recommendations on the use of magnesium hydroxide suspension in the process of spent chrome tanning agent recovery have been developed. The technological advantages and economic efficiency of using magnesium hydroxide as compared to sodium carbonate solution are given.

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№7|2019

DESIGNING WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

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UDC 628.2/.3

Shuvalov M. V.

System analysis of the evolution of designing sanitation systems for communities (to be discussed)

Summary

To get a whole picture of the evolution of wastewater disposal technologies for settlements and to study the conditionality of their development subject to the influence of specific demands of socio-historical practice, as well as to predict and plan further improvement of technologies, the sanitation system of a settlement should be considered as a set of interrelated components – suit of technologies: wastewater collection, disposal (or transportation); wastewater and sludge treatment, utilization of wastewater components, landfilling wastewater components (including effluent discharge into water bodies). The topological model of the structure of a sanitation system of a settlement is displayed using a graph. In the proposed graph model five vertices (components of the sanitation system structure) and numerous arcs (connection of components) are taken. The proposed topological model provides for analyzing a sanitation system of a real settlement and modeling to solve optimization problems and determine possible trends of its development.

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№7|2019

ABROAD

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UDC 628.1/.2(98)

Kofman V. Ya.

Water supply and wastewater disposal in the Arctic Region:
advanced technical soltions (a review)

Summary

In Canada wastewater treatment technology has been developed for small isolated arctic communities based on the effective biodegradation of organic carbon using a combination of anaerobic methanogenic and microbial bioelectrochemical processes that provide for biomethane generation. Microbial electrochemical degradation is executed in a membrane-free flow-type reactor with a bioanode and a biocathode operating at a voltage below the threshold of water electrolysis. In laboratory-based experiments in a wide range of mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures (5–23 °C) a high efficiency of reducing BOD5 (90–97%) was achieved with a residual content of less than 7 mg/l. Energy consumption is 0.6 kWh/kg COD. Low energy consumption along with the production of biomethane ensures the operation of the reactor in the mode of power generation. For the conditions of Greenland a scheme of wastewater disinfection involving chemical coagulation and addition of peracetic acid, and/or ultraviolet irradiation was developed. Complete inactivation of Escherichia coli is achieved with the combined use of ultraviolet radiation (2.1 kWh/m3) and peracetic acid. Preliminary coagulation is an essential prerequisite for the effective inactivation of microorganisms. In the United States a closed water treatment scheme based on the peroxone process with reuse of water for drinking purposes has been proposed for the city of Fairbanks (Alaska). The big advantage of the closed-loop scheme is 85% conservation of the water in the system while preserving the thermal energy obtained from different water heaters. As a result the purified warm water is returned to the consumer; while less energy is required for its additional heating. In addition, the mineralization of organic substances in the oxidation process ensures the achievement of 0.7 mg/l residual COD.

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vstmag engfree 200x100 2

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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