Tag:biotesting

№07|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Kostyuchenko S. V., Koudryavtsev N. N., Svitnev S. A., Timakov S. V., Ustiuzhaninov A. M., Shcheglov A. Iu.

Biotesting – the modern criterion of evaluating the efficiency of UV-systems for water disinfection

Summary

Nowadays ultraviolet irradiation increasingly becomes an actual method of water disinfection. Herewith units with amalgam and mercury low pressure lamps are mostly used. In the radiation spectrum of these lamps the mercury resonance line is dominating with 253.7 nm wave length on which up to 40% of the lamp power can fall. Radiation with this wave length has a powerful disinfection effect. The impact of UV-irradiation results in irreversible DNA and RNA damage in microorganisms so that the latter lose their reproductive capacity (become inactivated). The main parameter that characterizes the efficiency of these installations is UV-irradiation dose. It is a calculated value, therefore to obtain the maximum information on the operation of a UV-disinfection unit it is advisable to carry out biotesting with the help of live microorganisms. Besides, in some countries (Germany, France, Austria, USA) biotesting of UV-systems is obligatory. In Russia bio-validation is not obligatory; therefore real biological tests are often substituted with computer simulation. Process simulation carried out for a seven-lamp unit manufactured by «LIT» Scientific-Production Association produces the results close to the results obtained during biotesting. This confirms the range of use of disinfection UV-unit claimed by the manufacturer. However, the absolute guarantee of the UV-unit efficiency is bio-validation only since it supposes the use of live water and microorganisms. The data obtained in the process of biotesting allow describing the specific features of the disinfection unit operation to the fullest extent possible. The certificate verifying biotesting is a credible guarantee that the unit will provide for the required level of water disinfection.

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№7|2018

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 574.632/635

Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Study of the antibiotics effect on self-purification processes
of hydroecosystems

Summary

Based on literature data the role of hydrobionts of various ecologic groups in self-purification processes of aquatic ecosystems is considered alongside with the possible effect of antibiotics getting into surface water on hydrobionts. The results of studies of antibiotics effect on small crustaceans-filterers Daphnia magna Sr. by biotesting method and on nitrobacteria by laboratory modeling method with the use of river water are given. It is stated that the toxicity and hazard of the studied antibiotics for small crustaceans-filterers depend on the origin of antibiotics, their concentration in water and capacity to accumulate in small crustaceans’ organisms. Out of the stu­died antibiotics cefazolin was most toxic for daphnia, whereas ampicillin and ceftriaxon were less toxic. However these antibiotics are characterized by obvious capacity to accumulate in daphnia’s organism and can further cause downsizing of the population of these hydrobionts, distortion of self-purification from suspended solids and trophic structure of hydrobiocoenosis. In order to study the effect of antibiotics on nitrification process cefazolin and cefotaxime antibiotics were used at the concentrations of 1·10–9–1·10–8 mg/dm3. It is stated that the effect of these antibiotics depends on the concentration and origin of antibiotics. Cefazolin at the studied concentrations inhibits nitrification process. Cefotaxime at the concentration of 1·10–8 mg/dm3 slightly inhibits and at the concentration of 1·10–9 mg/dm3 inhibits nitrification process. The highest inhibiting effect of the studied antibiotics is observed on the 15th day of exposure; nitrification process enhancement with cefotaxime at the concentration of 1·10–8 mg/dm3 was registered within the interval of 6–12 days of exposure.

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№10|2011

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.169.7:614.77

Khrenov K. E., KOZLOV M. N., GRACHEV V. A., Shchegolkova N. M., Vanyushina A. Ya.

Investigation of properties of new soils produced from water sludge

Summary

The properties of soil produced from the sludge generated at the water treatment plants have been investigated. A new method of soil production has been developed. Biotesting with the use of two biotests (Ceriodaphniaand Infusoria) revealed some admissible soil toxicity while water stability was assessed as excellent. The comprehensive physical analysis showed that the addition of water sludge into loam soil enhances active processes of structure formation. The soil is well structured, resistant to unfavorable mechanical, physical and chemical impacts including acid-based solutions. The presented soil is recommended for grassplot formation as well as for biofuel crop cultivation. The grassplots formed with the new type of soil showed rather high resistance to drying up during the extremely hot summer of 2010.

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№11|2019

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.11.02
UDC 502.5(282):577.175.12

Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Assessment of plant growth regulators affecting phytoplankton
and zooplankton in a small stream

Summary

The results of studying by biotesting plant growth regulators most widely used in agriculture in Russia and the CIS countries (Amitsid, Atlet, Geteroauksin, Tsirkon, Ethamon, Epin-extra) affecting phytoplankton (green alga Chlorella vulgaris) and zooplankton species (Daphnia magna Sr. cladoceran) are presented. As test parameters, the effect of suppression (inhibition) and stimulation of algal cell multiplication in water samples with plant growth regulators was used which was recorded by reducing or increasing the optical density of the algal cell suspension in the sample at 96-hour exposure and mortality of one-day daphnia youngsters at 96-hour exposure. For work commercial plant growth regulators in the concentration range of 10-9–10-3 mg/dm3 and water from the Ilevna small stream, the left tributary of the Oka River, were used. It was established that all studied plant growth regulators caused daphnia death. The toxic effect depended on the nature of the product, concentration and duration of exposure. Depending on the concentration, plant growth regulators either stimulated or inhibited the multiplication of green alga Chlorella vulgaris cells.

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№4|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 663.64

Chesnokova S. M., Podolets A. A., Savel'ev O. V.

Estimation of macro- and micro composition of bottled water and tap water in the city of Vladimir

Summary

The assortment of bottled water sold in the distributive network of Vladimir was studied. It was stated that most of the trademarks were artificial water prepared from tap water by desalination and subsequent mineralization. The specifications for these water trademarks begin from 0131. The specifications for water from natural sources begin from 9185. The analysis of the macro-and micro composition of the bottled water and tap water samples in the city of Vladimir carried out with the use of «Kapel’104T» capillary electrophoresis system is presented alongside with the estimation of their physiologic usefulness in relation to the concentrations of the most important macro-and micro elements meeting the regulations (Sanitary Rules and Regulations 2.1.4.1116-02). The method of biotesting with the use of Daphnia magna Sr. provided for determining the trademarks of bottled water that contained preserving agents dangerous for children’s health (silver salts and antibiotics).

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№11|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY CONTROL

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UDC 628.16:504.064

Vasilenko S. L., Kobylianskii V. I.

The system of early warning of water quality deterioration
on the basis of toxicological testing

Summary

To improve raw water quality monitoring at water intakes and determine water toxicity the methods of biotesting are used to provide for making timely protecting management decisions. The system of raw water quality monitoring in municipal water supply is based on setting maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants. In Ukraine the normative standards of surface water protection from pollution (SanPiN 4630-88), where critical chemicals of the first and second classes of hazard alone amount to hundreds. The techniques developed earlier are inconsistent because of the discrepancies between the enlarging list of pollutants and out-of-date technical and methodological capacities of the supervisory agencies. The use of the biotesting method based on recording the photosynthetic capacity and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer or Scenedesmus quadricauda green algae for strategic pollution monitoring has been suggested. The flowchart of an automatic continuous monitoring station and an algorythm of natural water quality assessment were designed. The correlation between water toxicity index and traditional integral, physical and chemical water quality indices is shown. The flowchart of an automatic continuous monitoring station and its technical capacbilities that provide for tapping into the regional environmental monitoring system are described. A pilot model of the automatic continuous monitoring station was successfully tested at the Petchenezhskoye water reservoir. It was found that the toxicity index increased when BOD increased and the oxygen concentration decreased. The oxidation characetristic at that time did not change practically. On the basis of investigating natural water composition and experimental measuring water toxicity setting 40% threshold toxicity value for drinking water supply is recommended.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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VAK2