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UDC 628.1.2:62-278

Frenkel V. S.

Membrane Technologies: Past, Present and Future (the North America as an Example)


Basic tendencies in the field of development of membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment in the North America are covered. Main characteristics, basic trends and features of the use of membranes including membrane bioreactors are presented. Characteristics necessary for assessment and selection of the best membrane technologies for each certain project are compared. Membrane treatment has become the fastest growing sector in water treatment, wastewater treatment and water desalination. Four types of membranes are used according to membrane pore size: microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). All four principal types of membrane guarantee the removal of the entire spectrum of water pollutants and can be used as a stand-alone technology for a majority of applications. Integrated membrane processes combining different membrane types are becoming a cutting edge approach to meet strict water/wastewater quality regulations because they allow the smallest possible system size, minimize chemical consumption, and provide the most cost-effective solution for the greatest number of applications.

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UDC 628.165:66.081.63

Chigaev I. G.

The use of nanofiltration in brackish water softening


The results of the experimental studies with real water are presented that showed the perspectiveness of using the purification techno­logy based on polymer nanofiltration membranes in underground brackish water desalination as compared to reverse osmosis. The basic characteristics of nanofiltration membranes were studied. Possible concentrating of influent water by partial concentrate recycling was evaluated; the maximum salt concentrations in recycling water were determined. The studies on evaluating the effect of deposit formation on the basic membrane characteristics did not discover any noticeable permeability reduction; herewith the zones of intensive salt deposit formation on membranes were identified. It was determined that salt concentration in recycling water supplied on the membrane shall not exceed 42 mg-equ/l to obtain permeate with up to 6 mg-equ/l and for permeate with 2 mg-equ/l hardness the salt concentration shall not exceed 18 mg-equ/l. Influent water concentrating provides for the substantial reduction of discharged concentrate.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

Конференция итог

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