12-2015

Номер 12 / 2015

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Index of the Articles (doc, pdf), Published in the Water Supply and Sanitary Technique Magazine in 2015.


 

№12|2015

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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ГВС 628.3:625.042

Strelkov A. K., Teplykh S. Yu., Gorshkalev P. A., Sargsyan A. M.

Calculating the charge for the negative environmental impact produced by rail transport facilities

Summary

Basing on the results of chemical analyses and regulatory requirements to the environmental protection activities the analysis of the impact of surface runoff from rail transport facilities on the environment was carried out. Different charges imposed on natural resource users for water body pollution are described. The efficiency aspects of investing in the development of wastewater treatment and polishing are addressed. The costs associated with treatment will depend on the wastewater flow that determines the capacity of the treatment facilities, as well as on the required concentration of pollutants in the effluent that determines the required level of treatment, i.e. the number of stages and treatment technology. Under the conditions of the capital investment tightness it would be reasonable to determine the efficient investment trends in each particular case. The maximum permissible discharge of any pollutant will depend on its permissible concentration in wastewater that is assumed as a basis for designing treatment facilities. The evaluation of the investment efficiency is carried out by specifying the discharge of pollutants into water bodies that will determinate the cumulative expenses. The minimum cumulative expenses including the annual construction and operation expenditures as well as the effluent charge could be determined for every pollutant. To substantiate the expediency of surface runoff collection, removal and treatment the calculation of charging for nonpoint discharge of the surface runoff from rail tracks was carried out.

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№12|2015

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 504.064

Strelkov A. K., Teplykh S. Yu., Gorshkalev P. A., Sargsyan A. M.

Surface runoff pollution of water bodies

Summary

The results of studying the water of the Kondurcha River in the Samara Area and surface runoff from one of the railway stations are presented. The comparative analysis of the results of studying water samples from the water body in the monitoring section is given. The prediction of water quality changes in the water body for the next several years in relation to the following pollutants: BODfull, suspended solids, oil products and total iron is presen­ted. The trend of the growing negative impact of polluted surface runoff from the surroundings of railway objects on water sources persists owing to the growth of cargo tonnage; the concentrations of pollutants in the water bodies are increasing.

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№12|2015

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.16

Bykova P. G., Strelkov A. K., Zanina Zh. V., Zanin M. A., Poniaeva A. P.

Filter wash water reuse

Summary

The technology of filter wash water reuse in the technological process at the main facilities of a filtration pumping station in Otradnyi town, Samara Area, is suggested. The basic characteristics of natural and wash water have been determined; the required parameters of the wash water clarification facilities have been calculated. The experimental results and calculations showed the possibility of using horizontal sedimentation tanks taken out of operation for wash water clarification with the purpose of its reuse. Basing on the experimental results the relationship between wash water and river flow rates prior to supplying to the mixing tank was stated. The basic operational characteristics of the facilities for wash water treatment have been determined. At present detailed engineering of reusing wash water at the filtration pumping station of Otradnyi town is underway. The suggested process solution will provide for solving the important environmental protection task – to eliminate the discharge of wash water and sludge generated at the filtration pumping station into the Liman Lake and to protect the lake from silting.

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№12|2015

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.165:62-278:621.311.21

Tsabilev O. V., Strelkov A. K.

Evaluation of full-scale reverse osmosis unit operational parameters

Summary

Undissolved and dissolved substances present in the water supplied to a reverse osmosis unit can form deposits. To minimize their negative effect the equipment for water pretreatment that ensures the water quality meeting the requirements set by the membrane elements manufacturers has been retrofitted into the general process flow scheme. The basic operational parameters of a full-scale reverse osmosis unit with spiral wound reverse osmosis elements are presented. Mathematical processing of the operational parameter values was carried out, the results gained were plotted. The changes in the operational parameters before and after chemical washing of the membrane elements are shown. The evaluation of the convergence of the design and actual data under the conditions considered is given. The quoted relationships allow evaluating the operational parameters of the membrane elements, determining the washing interval and efficiency of the chemical washing. The use of the presented method of evaluating the operational characteristics will also allow substantiating the warranty claims to the manufacturers of reverse osmosis units and membrane elements.

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№12|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Stepanov S. V., Stepanov A. S., Gabidullina L. A., Dubov O. V.

Biological treatment of oil refinery wastewater  in a biosorption membrane reactor

Summary

The basic process and kinetic regularities of biomembrane and biosorption membrane treatment of fuel and lube refinery wastewater are presented. The enhancement of denitrification process is suggested by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration in the circula­ting flow of activated sludge by vacuum treatment. Summarizing the results of operating a pilot vacuumizing unit the more efficient use of biosorption membrane technology compared to the biomembrane method is shown. Single dosing of 1 g of powdered activated carbon per 1 liter of mixed liquor provided for reducing the mean monthly concentration of pollutants in permeate: in COD – from 68 to 49 mg/l; in BODfull – from 6 to 3.5 mg/l; in oil products – from 0.65 to 0.21 mg/l. The kinetic constants of the processes of eliminating the basic pollutants in membrane and biosorption membrane reactors were determined. It was stated that the specific oxidation rate in biosorption membrane reactors exceeded the similar indicators of membrane bioreactors only for easily sorbed substances – oil products and organic pollutants evaluated in BODfull. Vacuum treatment of circulating activated sludge during 5 minutes at minus 90 kPa pressure in a membrane bioreactor provided for 2-fold reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration, improvement of the sedimentation properties of activated sludge (compared to the flow scheme without vacuum treatment) and the dissolved oxygen concentration less than 0.5 mg/l in the anoxic zone of the membrane bioreactor.

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№12|2015

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.13

Strelkov A. K., Teplykh S. Yu., Nosova E. G.

Treatment of chrome-containing wastewater of fur tanning factories

Summary

The results of studying the treatment of chrome-containing wastewater of fur tanning factories are presented. In the process of leather and fur tanning big amounts of wastewater containing raw material and wastes of chemicals, dyes and trimmings used for dressing are generated. A process flow scheme of wastewater treatment for the factories with a capacity of more than 200 m3/day is suggested. Theoretic substantiation of the use of standard and new chemicals is given. With the purpose of studying the physical and chemical characteristics of the total industrial waste flow observations of the pollution composition and mathematical processing of the data obtained were carried out. Studying the methods of fur tanning wastewater in context of the environmental safety showed that the pre­ference shall be given to chemical methods as well to electro-coagulation with chemical tertiary treatment that provides for the efficient treatment of such wastewater. The substantiation of technical and economic expediency of the treatment facilities construction is given.

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№12|2015

NETWORK RELIABILITY

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UDC 628.1/.3.196

GALPERIN E. M., Strelkov A. K.

On the reliability of water supply  and wastewater collection systems

Summary

Integrity of operation is the most important attribute of the water distribution and wastewater collection networks. However up to now the regulatory documents lack the definition of this notion. By the case studies of the water distribution network operation the great losses that the national economy incurs due to the lack of the integrity indicators in the construction rules and regulations have been demonstrated. It is noted that introducing these indicators will provide for the significant improvements in the design methods and evaluation of the operation of water and wastewater systems. A considerable number of the experts are not ready to change the conventional working arrangements ignoring the Order of the RF Ministry of Regional Development that offers the indicators that take into account the reliability of operation. The RF Ministry of Housing and Public Utilities must display insistence and perseverance in adopting a firm technical policy in relation to this issue.

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№12|2015

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

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UDC 628.1

GALPERIN E. M.

On hydraulic calculations of a loop water distribution network
(to be discussed)

Summary

During the operation a loop water distribution network is subject to both disturbing impact and control activities. Disturbing impact aims at changing the state of the network. At that the operating personnel try to maintain the network in 100% working conditions at minimum costs by the control activities. Disturbing impact is caused by water consumption alterations and pipeline failures that arise stochastically. In the process of hydraulic designing water consumption variations are simulated with so called specific modes chosen at the most crucial moments of the water network operation. Hydraulic calculations of the specific modes are carried out provided the network is in complete function. The model of a loop water distribution network operation does not take into account the disturbing impact of failures. The construction rules and regulations determine only the level of the network operation in case of a single section cutoff. For simulating the process of failure occurrence and elimination the use of the mathematical tools of a queue system is suggested. The calculations show that at the existing water network failure rate and repair time the loop water distribution network is in non-operating condition at least for three and more weeks over a year. The procedure of hydraulic calculation of a loop water distribution network with account of occurring failures and repair time is suggested.

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№12|2015

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

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UDC 628.311

Palagin E. D., Tsypin A. V., Bykova P. G., Vdovin D. V.

Determining the capacity of the surface runoff treatment facilities in the Volga federal district

Summary

Summarized data on the maximum rainfall precipitation depth removed as surface runoff to the treatment facilities of the Volga federal district are presented. The analysis of the revealed trends is given. In order to determine the maximum precipitation depth the data obtained by the weather stations in the process of long-term rainfall observations in a specific region (for more than 10–15 years) as well as the records of the nearest representative weather stations can be used as baseline information. In the absence of long-term data the value of the maximum precipitation depth in the range of 5–10 mm can be taken. The conducted research provided for determining the daily precipitation depth of low-intensive frequent rains with the period of single exceedance of the predicted rate Р = 0.05–0.1 year. The daily precipitation depth in most big cities of the Volga federal district varies from 2.2 to 8.9 mm; the precipitation depth providing for more than 70% of the annual runoff varies in a more narrow range of 4.6–6.1 mm.

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